What is ADHD?
What are the symptoms of ADHD ?
Individuals with ADHD, according to the Mental Institute of Mental Health, experience one or all of the these symptoms:
- Inattention: having difficulty paying attention
- Hyperactivity: having excessive energy and move and talk a lot
- Impulsivity: having difficult with self-control and often act without thinking
Signs of inattention may include:
- “Not paying close attention to details or making seemingly careless mistakes in schoolwork or during other activities
- Difficulty sustaining attention in play and tasks, including conversations, tests, or lengthy assignments
- Trouble listening closely when spoken to directly
- Finding it hard to follow through on instructions or to finish schoolwork or chores, or starting tasks but losing focus and getting easily sidetracked
- Difficulty organizing tasks and activities, such as doing tasks in sequence, keeping materials and belongings in order, managing time, and meeting deadlines
- Avoiding tasks that require sustained mental effort, such as homework
- Losing things necessary for tasks or activities, such as school supplies, books, eyeglasses, and cell phones
- Being easily distracted by unrelated thoughts or stimuli
- Being forgetful during daily activities, such as chores, errands, and keeping appointments.”
Signs of hyperactivity and impulsivity may include:
NIMH outlined the following as among the signs of hyperactivity and impulsivity:
- “Fidgeting and squirming while seated
- Getting up and moving around when expected to stay seated, such as in a classroom
- Running, dashing around, or climbing at inappropriate times or, in teens, often feeling restless
- Being unable to play or engage in hobbies quietly
- Being constantly in motion or on the go and/or acting as if driven by a motor
- Talking excessively
- Answering questions before they are fully asked or finishing other people’s sentences
- Having difficulty waiting one’s turn, such as when standing in line
- Interrupting or intruding on others, for example, in conversations, games, or activities.”
Strategies to manage ADHD symptoms
NIMH offers some useful tips to help manage ADHD symptoms. These include:
- “Get regular exercise, especially when they seem hyperactive or restless.
- Eat regular, healthy meals.
- Get plenty of sleep.
- Stick to a routine.
- Use homework and notebook organizers to write down assignments and reminders.
- Take medications as directed.”
What does ADHD iceberg mean?
An iceberg is a large chunk of ice that floats in the ocean. Only a small part of the iceberg is visible but the larger section is submerged under water. The term iceberg is used in several idiomatic expressions most popular of which is the ‘tip of the iceberg’ which according the Merriam Webster means that only a tiny part of something (e.g., a problem or an issue) is known or divulged but the larger part is hidden or unknown.
ADHD is therefore an analogy which refers to the fact that individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder go through way more than what their exterior symptoms show. In other words, ADHD inner experience is way bigger than what appears ‘above the water’.