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Interesting Chart Outlining the Differences between Pedagogy, Andragogy, and Heutagogy

Preparing our kids and students for a global knowledge economy necessitates a new teaching approach; one that will equip them with the skills and competencies needed to thrive in such an economy. It is widely believed that pedagogy as an educational method per see is no longer enough; teachers and educators need to embrace new methodologies that are more relevant to the exigencies of today's learning. Andragogy and Heutagogy are probably the answer.


Andragogy is a teaching strategy developed for adult learners. Andragogy has been around for more than a century but it gained more momentum and came up to the surface in educational literature particularly with the work of Malcom Knowles. Andragogy marks a clear departure from the traditional pedagogy informing child learning in that it is predicated upon 5 assumptions related to the characterstics of adult learners :

1. Self-concept: As a person matures his self concept moves from one of being a dependent personality toward one of being a self-directed human being
2. Experience: As a person matures he accumulates a growing reservoir of experience that becomes an increasing resource for learning.
3. Readiness to learn. As a person matures his readiness to learn becomes oriented increasingly to the developmental tasks of his social roles.
4. Orientation to learning. As a person matures his time perspective changes from one of postponed application of knowledge to immediacy of application, and accordingly his orientation toward learning shifts from one of subject-centeredness to one of problem centredness.
5. Motivation to learn: As a person matures the motivation to learn is internal (Knowles 1984:12)
Check out this page to learn more about Andragogy:

                                        Related : Pedagogy Vs Andragogy


Heutagogy is the study of self-directed learning and self- determined learning. While some think about Heutagogy as a separate methodology from Andragogy, several other scholars view it as an extension of Andragogy. Heutagogy is all about teaching learners how to learn. In this respect,  "heutagogy looks to the future in which knowing how to learn will be a fundamental skill given the pace of innovation and the changing structure of communities and workplaces.”

Here is a PDF document to learn more about Heutagogy.

There are some key differences between the three approaches : pedagogy, andragogy, and heutagogy. the chart below compiled by Lindy Mckeown captures some of these nuances, check it out and share with us what you think of them.

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