This is a learning process that is based on inquiry or asking questions. Through asking challenging questions learners get intrinsically motivated to start delving deeper to find answers for these questions and in doing so they are exploring new avenues of knowledge and insight.
As you can see in the graphic below inquiry-based learning is a cyclical learning process composed of many different stages starting with asking questions and results in asking more questions. Inquiry based learning is not just asking questions, but it is a way of converting data and information into useful knowledge. A useful application of inquiry based learning involves many different factors, which are, a different level of questions, a focus for questions, a framework for questions, and a context for questions.
|courtesy of :www.inquirylearn.com|
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2- Problem-based learning
In a problem-based learning (PBL) model, students engage complex, challenging problems and collaboratively work toward their resolution. PBL is about students connecting disciplinary knowledge to real-world problems—the motivation to solve a problem becomes the motivation to learn.
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3- Discovery Learning
Discovery learning is a kind of teaching that is based on the student finding things out for themselves, looking into problems, and asking questions. Essentially, it's all about students coming to their own conclusions and asking about things in their course that might not make particular sense. Obviously, as soon as enquiries are made, they can learn new things and hence will have become part of an innovative, thought-provoking and interesting educational journey. Top psychologists in the country have promoted this kind of learning
4- Cooperative Learning
Several definitions of cooperative learning have been formulated. The one most widely used in higher
education is probably that of David and Roger Johnson of the University of Minnesota. According to the
Johnson & Johnson model, cooperative learning is instruction that involves students working in teams to
accomplish a common goal, under conditions that include the following elements (7):
1. Positive interdependence. Team members are obliged to rely on one another to achieve the goal.
If any team members fail to do their part, everyone suffers consequences.
2. Individual accountability. All students in a group are held accountable for doing their share of
the work and for mastery of all of the material to be learned.
3. Face-to-face promotive interaction. Although some of the group work may be parcelled out and
done individually, some must be done interactively, with group members providing one another
with feedback, challenging reasoning and conclusions, and perhaps most importantly, teaching
and encouraging one another.
4. Appropriate use of collaborative skills. Students are encouraged and helped to develop and
practice trust-building, leadership, decision-making, communication, and conflict management
5. Group processing. Team members set group goals, periodically assess what they are doing well
as a team, and identify changes they will make to function more effectively in the future.
Cooperative learning is not simply a synonym for students working in groups. A learning exercise only
qualifies as cooperative learning to the extent that the five listed elements are present.
5- Authentic Learning
Authentic learning typically focuses on real-world, complex problems and their solutions, using role-playing exercises, problem-based activities, case studies, and participation in virtual communities of practice. The learning environments are inherently multidisciplinary. They are “not constructed in order to teach geometry or to teach philosophy. A learning environment is similar to some ‘real world’ application or discipline: managing a city, building a house, flying an airplane, setting a budget, solving a crime.
6- Project-based Learning“ an instructional approach built upon authentic learning activities that engage student interest and motivation. These activities are designed to answer a question or solve a problem and generally reflect the types of learning and work people do in the everyday world outside the classroom.”
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7- Situated Learning
Situated learning is a type of learning that involves learning materials within the context of how the information or skills are actually used and applied. It is typically associated with social learning and though it was initially recognized in regard to adult education, some of its practices have been extended to youth education as well. With this type of learning, communities of practice are established in which individuals learn and build mutual meaning through active processes that imbue context and purpose into what is learned. Situated learning does not typically involve a particular pedagogical approach, but instead seeks to understand how learning relates to daily practices and social interactions.